Journal of Nanotechnology and Smart Materials
Editorial

Biomass-based Nanocomposites and Mesoporous Materials

Tae Jin Kim*
AFFILIATIONS
Chemical and Molecular Engineering Department, Stony Brook University,USA
Corresponding author (Address):
Tae Jin Kim, Chemical and Molecular Engineering Department, Stony Brook University,USA
Received Date: December 05, 2013 Accepted Date: December 28, 2013 Published Date: January 20, 2014

Citation: Tae Jin Kim (2013) Biomass-based Nanocomposites and Mesoporous Materials. J Nanotech Smart Mater 1:1.

The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals has been rigorously investigated as a response to the depletion of petroleum resources, increasing demand for in oil and secure access to energy[1-4]. It has been estimated that by 2030 lignocellulosic biomass could supply a substantial portion of the international chemical and transportation fuel market [5]. Lignocellulosic biomass is usually composed of three components: 35-50 wt% cellulose, 20-40 wt% hemicellulose, and 10-25 wt% lignin. While lignocellulose is cheap and abundant forms of biomass, it is difficult to convert to target materials due to the high crystallinity structure and oxygen/carbon ratio. In order to increase the biomass conversion and upgrade bio-oil into fuels (green diesel) and chemicals, oxygen reduction and chemical bonding rearrangement are crucial. Lignocellulose can be depolymerized to C5/C6 fragment by hydrolysis using an acid catalyst such as HCl or H2SO4. Furfuryl alcohol (FA; C5H6O2) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, C6H6O3), which can be produced from hemicellulose and cellulose, respectively, by dehydration and decomposition, have been identified as are considered to be a key furan derivatives [6].

At higher FA concentrations in the aqueous phase with acid catalysts, FA monomer easily converts to polymeric materials[7,8]. Polymeric Furfuryl alcohol (PFA) is compatible with petroleum-based organic polymers. Microporous carbon spheres and membrane were synthesized with biomass-based chemicals and have been used for preparing corrosion-protective materials, electrode materials, synthesizing nanocomposite, nanoporou carbons and glassy carbon [9-11]. For instance, carbonized poly(furfuryl alcohol) membrane showed ~94% salt rejection for water desalination [12]. Recently, H. Wang and J. Yao published review paper in the journal of Ind. Eng. Chem. Res regarding the use of furfuryl alcohol polymer in carbon nanostructure and nanocomposite [13]. Authors highlighted that renewable biomass based poly(furfuryl alcohol)( PFA) is very attractive precursor for carbon materials and it would be a key template for fabrication of nanostructured materials.

A wide number of characterization techniques have been used to explored the reaction mechanism, intermediate species, and structure morphology during the furan derivatives polymerization reaction; FT-IR [7,12,14,15,23,25], Raman [7,25], UV-vis [7,23] SEM [12,14-19,24,25], TEM [19-21,25], and NMR [22,23]. Theoretical studies have been also carried out to investigate the thermodynamic properties and support experimental results [26]. For instance, combined with the theory calculation, chemical bonding, such as exocyclic and endocyclic C=C, vibration information provided and proved a hypothesized polymerization mechanisms [26]. To enhance a functionality of polymer material, metal nanoparticles contained and metal-based porous materials were developed and can be applied to active catalysts [27].

In summary, biomass derived nano-materials are promising option for replacing a current petrochemical based ones and targeted products' yield can be improved with an effective novel catalysts.

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25B. Yi, R. Rahagopalan, H.C. Foley, U.J. Kim, X. Liu, et al. (2006) Catalytic Polymerization and Facile Grafting of Poly(furfuryl alcohol) to Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube:? Preparation of Nanocomposite Carbon. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 28: 11307-11313.
26(a)T. Kim, R.S. Assary, R.E. Pauls, C.L. Marshall, et al. (2013) Thermodynamics and Reaction Pathways of Furfuryl Alcohol Oligomer Formation. Catal. Commun.
26(b)T. Kim, R.S. Assary, Hacksung Kim, C.L. Marshall, D.J. Gosztola, et al. (2013) Effects of solvent on the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction: UV Raman spectroscopy study. Catal. Today 205: 60-66.
26(c)T. Kim, R.S. Assary, C.L. Marshall, D.J. Gosztola, L.A. Curtiss, et al. (2012) Studies of the Raman Spectra of Cyclic and Acyclic Molecules: Combination and Prediction Spectrum Methods. Chemical Physics Letters. 531: 210-215.
26(e)T. Kim, R.S. Assary, C.L. Marshall, D.J. Gosztola, L.A. Curtiss, et al. (2011) Acid-Catalyzed Furfuryl Alcohol Polymerization: Characterizations of Molecular Structure and Thermodynamic Properties. ChemCatChem 3: 1451-1458.
26(f)T. Kim, R.S. Assary, C.L. Marshall, L.A. Curtiss, P.C. Stair (2011) Vibrational properties of levulinic acid and furan derivatives: Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. J. Raman Spectrosc. 42: 2069-2076.

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